STATS- Descriptive Statistics

STATS: Descriptive Statistics

2.1 Summarizing Categorical Data

nonoverlapping classes”.

Frequency Distribution

Relative Frequency and Percent Frequency Distributions

Bar Charts & Pie Charts

2.2 Summarizing Quantitative Data

Frequency Distribution

The three steps necessary to define the classes for a frequency distribution with quantitative data are:

  1. Determine the number of nonoverlapping classes.
    • 5~20 classes. (depends on the size of the data)
  2. Determine the width of each class.
    • we recommend that the width be the same for each class.
    • Approximate class width 􏰔 = Largest data value 􏰀- Smallest data value / Number of classes (can be rounded for convenience)
  3. Determine the class limits.
    (optional: class midpoint).

Relative Frequency and Percent Frequency Distributions

Dot Plot


  • Left/Right/Symmetric skew

Cumulative Distributions

(<= upper limit of each class)


2.3 Exploratory Data Analysis: The Stem-and-Leaf Display

2.4 Crosstabulations and Scatter Diagrams